[size=32]Foreign employment in Iraq exacerbates the economic crisis
- 1 Hour Ago
Researcher Shatha Khalil *
The former Iraqi governments facilitated the law of residence and employment, especially before 1990, when they numbered more than four million. The number of Sudanese reached three million. The labor market attracted other nationalities such as Bangladeshis, Indians and others. Economic crisis suffered by Iraq in the 1990s forced most of them to leave for other countries or to return to their countries of origin, some preferring to survive despite the difficult circumstances.
After the occupation in 2003, the security chaos and sectarianism experienced by the Iraqis, some expatriates preferred to stay in Iraq, especially Egyptians and Sudanese, whose presence is still evident in some places in central Baghdad.
In recent years, the Iraqi labor market has attracted various nationalities, mostly non-Arab. Commercial centers, restaurants, private sector establishments and shops in the residential areas have been filled with workers mainly from the state of Bangladesh, and their numbers are constantly increasing due to the reluctance of employers to hire them for their simplicity, commitment and discipline.
Iraqi citizen Thaer Raad, aged 23, says he has not yet found work to spend on himself and his family, saying he has not been successful in his previous occupations because of low wages, heavy pressure on workers and increased working hours. He added that he had to leave the construction work recently, because the contractor who worked with him was delaying the payment of wages, and that injury while working in construction recently deprived him of the opportunity to find a good alternative, had to sit at home Waiting for a job or a long-awaited job.
In a similar vein, a recent report by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) revealed that the rate of unemployment among young people in Iraq was more than 40%. The rate of women outside the labor force in Iraq is approximately 85%.
As for the legal offense, the Iraqi law No. (137) for the year 2016 approved the work guarantee of the young Iraqi in Article IV of Chapter II of the work, as a right for every citizen capable of it, and the state works to provide it on the basis of equal opportunities without discrimination.
The Iraqi law also specified the percentage of foreign workers in private institutions at 5%, according to the consulting lawyer at the Erbil court in northern Iraq. Jaafar Sharif was implicated, but attributed the reason for the deregulation to some companies that deliberately circumvent the law. In agreement with the offices of the recruitment of foreign labor, and smuggling them to the labor market, and thus led to increased unemployment in the country.
Sharif considered that the best solution to avoid this impotence is the drafting of the parliament's strict laws, and the need for intervention by the Workers' Union to control productivity to encourage the employment of local labor.
In light of this problem, the Iraqi Ministry of Labor is announcing that it is in the process of introducing new regulations to regulate foreign workers to Iraq and obliging employers to limit the number of work hours and holidays for foreign workers.
The ministry added an item to the contracts signed with the investment companies that entered Iraq, it needs to be half of the workforce in its projects of Iraqis.
Most of the foreign workers are in the process of applying, receiving and delivering patients, cleaning floors in private hospitals, as well as in hotels, private gaming towns and some shops.
Some foreign workers from countries such as India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal and the Philippines face the problem of illegal residency in Iraq, making their movement outside the workplace somewhat restricted. All of them entered the country without work permits and through tourist visas only.
The owner of a foreign employment office in Baghdad expressed his deep resentment at the Iraqi government's decision to deport foreign workers and to deny them entry visas.
In addition, some professions are rarely practiced by Iraqis, such as domestic service, childcare, and some families seek to hire foreign workers to care for their children while the housewife is away from home. Najat Abbas, an employee of the Ministry of Oil, The long house calls for the presence of a nanny for her three children, take care of their affairs, cook for them, and prepare their requirements until the arrival of work, has contracted Najat with a nanny.
Negative repercussions on the citizens and the Iraqi economy:
another Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs statistics indicate high rates of unemployment to 1.2 million unemployed worker, many of them university degrees, and the Iraqi government has issued a decision to deport foreign workers working in Iraq to their countries, In order to reduce the unemployment rate among Iraqi youth, according to the Parliamentary Labor and Social Affairs Committee.
Economists believe that the increased dependence on foreign labor is a cause of the spread of unemployment in Iraq, which increased significantly after 2003, this cheap labor has become a favorite in the labor market, and the Iraqi economy suffers from unemployment is already chronic, and difficult to solve only During the intervention of the State directly and effectively by codifying the introduction of foreign labor to Iraq.
The increase in the unemployment rate in Iraq, which is the "dumping of goods" resulting from the entry of large quantities of goods and goods to the country at cheap prices, which compete with the local industry, and the freezing of factories and laboratories, all reasons led to the closure of many Iraqi laboratories and the demobilization of workers, The phenomenon, emphasizes the economic expert on "the need to support the private sector to eliminate unemployment, which amounted to more than (35%), it is impossible for the public sector alone to absorb this number."
Here, the Iraqi government and the responsible ministries must take care to strike a balance between allowing the Iraqi labor market to be covered by the Iraqi labor market first by meeting the Iraqi young man's right to work protected from poverty and need, and placing a special percentage of foreigners in the workplace.