Saw the Iraqi banking system developments and transitions, and numerous paths variety in different points in time, and identified political philosophy and economic and financial conditions that prevailed at every stage, the features of the banking system and other economic sectors, linked to political philosophy and economic and financial conditions in each point in time, and moved the Iraqi banking system from Bending of the free market and then the case of co-existence between the public and private banks, the government monopoly Alyoda full banking status of coexistence and then again.
It is axiomatic that requires the attainment of the desired maturity banking activity, political stability and a long time, and a steady trend in the management and ownership of the institutions.
After these procedures character correction, Romania began implementing programs allocative banking and belatedly, during the second stage and sold part of the shares of banking to foreign investors, and remained the contribution of foreign ownership of the assets of the banking Romanian lower than the percentage in other countries of the group selected in the study, it reached 50% , and still two of the three largest banks under the control of the Roman government.
As for Croatia, the banking system has lived a long time as one of the main parts of the banking system Yugoslavian, and after Croatia's secession from the union remained its banking system bears the hallmarks of the previous phase, of an indirect ownership (collective ownership and management of self), and reflected the policy previous banking such as loans directed and which has led to a decline in the size of bank assets and stimulate weak financial position of the Croatian banks, on the measures taken to restore financial structure, without the need to support the government, taking advantage of the increase in banking operations with its key customers as companies export with good financial situation.
Has not gone unnoticed role of government operations banking reform endeavors and has adopted the Croatian government to nationalize three private banks, they need to re-structure, and the limited presence of the banking foreigner in the first phase on the foreign bank and one, and did not exceed the foreign ownership of 0.05% of the banking assets Alcrawtah until 1994.
In the second phase precipitated Croatia from the program allocative banking even dominated by foreign investors on the four banks, Croatian, and within the year 2000 amounted to foreign ownership accounted for 84% of the banking assets Croatian assigned to them in the framework of the plan, and remind them savings banks, which dominate the deposits Home, composed mainly of deposits Family, and there are specialized banks that deal with foreign-funded transactions in foreign currency.
In general, the allocative banking programs in six states passed Bmujtin of customization spread since the first (1995-1990), and the second since 1995 and until the beginning of the current century.
And used these countries multiple methods to customize the banks of which Maaraf document allocative (voucher Mass Privatzation) means allocating a certain percentage of shares Kksaúm ownership, and free of charge or at low prices to the users and staff or local investors, and the objective was to use this method, the rapid shift to a market system, and broaden the base of participation to absorb any opposition list for the process of transformation and privatization programs, and the other method, which was used from these countries, the style Find investor strategic, but that did not stop to say, that each country tried to use the methods of customization that fit with their economic and social own .
It is the outcome of the data of the six countries on the program allocative banking, said the number of banks that have been allocated to 2003 has reached 141, and the remaining number of public banks 127, while he became the number of foreign banks 110, and comes a number of local banks for the newly established rank Alakhirhhat numbered as in table 79 (6).
The average percentage of ownership of the strategic investor of 20.3%, in terms of the rate of the domestic investor ownership of 13.1%, as in Table (7).
But the most important indicators of the level of performance as in the table ( is the level of profitability, where the increased profitability of banks privatized, bringing the rate of return on assets of banks that have been allocated 0.0175, higher than the rate of return on assets of public banks and local, where reached the (0.0004), (0.097 respectively).
The banks have witnessed that have been allocated an increase in expenditures to improve the technology used, and provide competitive wages, to attract banking talent.
Second: - The Egyptian Experience
Disease of the banking system in Egypt, his activity in the mid-nineteenth century, through the role played by foreign bank branches.
With the beginning of the twentieth century established national banks Egyptian and continued their number is increasing even numbered when the decision was issued nationalization No. 17 of 1961, twenty-five commercial banks, under which turned ownership of all private banks to public banks, in the framework of an economic policy based on the economic planning process.
With the advent of 1973 has emerged many of the indicators that reflected the weakness of the overall performance of the Egyptian economy, such as increasing the state budget deficit, and the growing size of the public debt, low savings rates and financial returns to the state, and refer Experts Egyptians that the low level of public institutions, and considered responsible for (20 % to 25%) of the state budget deficit, which hit the public, and became a public revenues do not cover only 77% of public expenditure, and this percentage has continued to decline in subsequent periods.
The economic pressures directly contributed to the elaboration of a political line and the leadership of a pro, the program of economic openness and direct liberalization of economic processes, which form a shift to a liberal and a trend towards a market system, and called on the Egyptian leadership in 1974 the private sector to participate in the economic process after a long break, and so varied economic policies in Egypt during the previous century in the transformation of the capitalist system, and to move towards socialism and then economic openness.
The trend toward more political power from the policies of openness and sense of the inevitability of economic reform aimed at overcoming many of the economic problems, such as compensation for the decline in the volume of foreign currencies, and complete the construction of infrastructure, and the burden of repayment of external loans.
The reduction of high inflation, which amounted to 1974 more than 25%, and the devaluation of the Egyptian pound / dollar to 80%, of the main objectives sought by the Egyptian government to be achieved with improved legal environment encouraging openness economic, thereby increasing the volume of private investments from 10% to 19% , between the years (1983-1974), and decreased investment from the public sector (90% to 81%) for the same period.
Although the vast openness of the operations, but the control of the public sector until 1990, she stayed on the prevailing banking and insurance sectors and by 90%
And strengthened the process of economic opening up the issuance of Law No. 20 of 1991, which abolished the case of differentiation, between public sector institutions, private sector and gradually within the framework of free competition for the advancement of public institutions, and the development of the issue of self-reliance and thus maximize profits, prompting granted autonomy in administration, pricing and financing, and fired on these institutions and holding companies which numbered 314 company, but that the Egyptian government is keen to make the issue of employment and employment in the general framework of government policies.
And targeted planners Egyptians ask these companies to customization in Durations medium and entrusted programs allocative, management advisory body with the independence and wide, and is located on the responsibility to develop plans for the re-structural institutions with financial structures is balanced, which is characterized by low productivity and the level of performance, and concentrated actions restructuring in repay part of the debt of these institutions and re-financing, which leads her to work from new and high performance to increase their profitability and then privatized, and fired at the office of this body of public projects.