Transparency in dealing with public money of the vocabulary of management and good governance in Iraq
08/04/2013 12:00 AM
D. Kamal Al-Basri - Researcher harmful سباهي
Comes this article reaction to the report issued in September 2012 for the United Nations organizations in Iraq, UNDP & UNDOC who participated in the preparation Authority Alenzahhwaljhaz Central Bureau of Statistics of the Federal Government and the Kurdistan region, and who talked about some of the negative indicators in government departments and in which the sacrilege of the rule of law and revealed the weakness the sense of citizenship and belonging. article aims to be reminded of the importance transparency Kmfirdh of the vocabulary of good governance in the use of public money and the development of a sense of responsibility and to achieve efficient use of resources, not to mention it's an effective tool in reducing or resolving the tensions between the parties. The article refers to the themes first is respect to the transparency of oil revenues and the second regards the transparency of public spending, then limping to discuss two topics (from the door illustration of the importance of transparency) are the ration card allocations and the rate of wages in government institutions. This article calls for the executive and legislative bodies both to efforts to achieve this important individual of the vocabulary of good governance. The emphasis on good governance does not come from a vacuum, it has confirmed the research that progress and prosperity مصدرهما not natural resources or embrace democracy as far as how to achieve good governance. Means transparency of information allow everyone access to the facts, whether economic, social or political, and this requires institutions You may post various data (plans, spending, agreements, etc.). It is according to the indicators the World Bank for the year 2012 have been diagnosed with Iraq as an advanced country on other countries in the Arab region and the Middle East in the field of democratic practices, it is advanced, for example, Egypt, Qatar and Iran, but this picture will be different when we Multi government's ability to fulfill all the requirements of good governance and the rule of law, transparency and efficiency.
* Note Figure 1 down Thread
The absence of transparency deprives citizens of the right to follow up and monitor the disposition of public money (through parliamentary channels, civil society organizations and the media or through the citizen himself) as stipulated in the Iraqi constitution. They are an important tool to determine, for example, how they sold out of Iraqi oil and follow-up and the oil ministry in the field of exploration, extraction and export and domestic consumption, as it is also a tool to identify and rationalize the priorities in government spending towards the most important and not important (addressing deprivation or spending on the development of external relations).
That concerns us in this article to identify the extent to which he achieved Iraq in achieving transparency deal of public money and cracking down on illegal practices (according to the pledges of Iraq's international), and will stand in the two first transparent fiscal revenue (oil revenues) and the transparency of public spending.
1. The transparency of oil revenues:
Iraq was able to occupy an advanced rank in the transparency of the oil industry, the initiative was launched the Extractive Industries Transparency in Baghdad in January 2010 when the Prime Minister announced Iraq's commitment to this initiative. The World Council has the initiative by announcing that Iraq has become a candidate country under the initiative of the Extractive Industries Transparency after a meeting in Oslo in February 2010. As part of the implementation of the initiative of the Extractive Industries Transparency, the government of Iraq is bound to disclose all the revenue generated by sales of the oil sector, and the international companies that buy Iraqi oil to disclose what will then pay to the government, was conducted matching these amounts. And published in the report of the initiative (which has been under the supervision of the Council of the stakeholders, which includes representatives of the Iraqi government and extractive companies of national and foreign civil society organizations and trade unions) in the December 20, 2011, which pointed to matching the cash flows resulting from the oil industry in Iraq in 2009. Perhaps it is also useful to emphasize that Iraq's accession to the organization Transparency International in trading oil foreign is necessary at the present time as strengthen the confidence of the people running the government to clear in front of them all being from trading oil, both at the level of contracts with international companies or the amount of fiscal revenue attributable to the country, in addition to the amount of oil exported to overseas. There is no doubt that the reports of the organization will work to develop status internationally Iraq. That these transparency ستضيق the grip on attempts to financial and administrative corruption that occur in oil trading internal and external. Here we must commend the administration's efforts in a single application of oil task of the vocabulary of good governance, which includes vocabulary Other: Adoption of efficiency, planning and building strategies on the basis of science and the rule of law ... Etc..
2 - the transparency of public spending:
Iraq was unsuccessful achieving transparency of public expenditure and to the same extent that has been achieved for the transparency of financial resources of oil, has made Arab countries such as Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Egypt and Lebanon to Iraq, which in turn provides both Qatar and Saudi Arabia. That the transparency of the budget simply requires the dissemination of information issued by the Ministry of Finance annually, according to the Financial Administration Act No. 95 of 2004 on the website of the Ministry and the adoption of issuing the following financial documents: 1. Dissemination of the budget strategy, which includes goals and priorities of economic policies on the medium and long term, and the expectations of revenue and expenditure and the surplus or deficit and debt, 2. Details of the federal budget before and after approval by the Council of Ministers, 3. The federal budget after approval by the House and sent to the Presidential Council for approval, and read it after the budget by the Council of the Presidency of the Republic, 4. Monthly reports: Show monthly reports on progress in the implementation of the budget, and must be issued within (three weeks) from the end of each month, include amounts of revenues and expenses every month and for the period that passed this year until the date of the preparation of reports and should be compared to the numbers what is expected of monthly income and expenditure, as reports must include information about the Alaguetradi activity of the government, 5. Mid-year report: This report provides a comprehensive overview on the implementation of the budget and budget performance for the current year and for the two fiscal years following, at least, must be issued within six weeks from the end of the first half of the fiscal year, this report contains a comprehensive discussion of financial assets and liabilities governmental and non-financial assets and allocations pensions and emergency, that the disclosure of the impact of any government decision, or any other circumstances that would have a significant impact on the budget, 6. End-of-year report: It is the basic document of accountability to the government and must be subject to scrutiny by the highest institution in the field of auditing (BSA) and issued within six months from the end of the fiscal year. The report shows the extent of the commitment level of income and expenditure approved by Parliament in the budget or an amendment to the original budget during the year, and that the formula provides matching perfectly to make the budget formula. The report also contains documents relating to the non-financial performance and actual results targets that have been completed, the total expenditure data in formats and custom cut income and costs for users clearly view spending data by the administrative body, and a comprehensive discussion of the assets. The lack of transparency of the federal budget is a violation of the law of the Financial Administration Act, which states explicitly in the first section of the law that "the principles of transparency and inclusiveness and harmony is of fundamental importance when creating and implementing the federal budget for Iraq and related matters. Vistlzim principle of transparency to publish budget information according to the criteria internationally accepted and progress in a way that facilitates analysis and enhance confidence in them. " The many benefits of transparency, and perhaps appropriate to put an example of respect to the efficiency of the financial allocations ration cards and other relation to fairly determine the level of wages in government circles.
The first example of the ration card allocations:
Allocated federal budget to buy the ration card items amount (4917 billion dinars) for the year 2013, has also allocated an amount of $ 1360 billion dinars to support the price of agricultural crops included in the ration card items, for the purpose of access to the mandate of the ration card total and calculate the per capita share of these customizations. Costs have been calculated card Altamoana on the following figure:
1 - 60 percent of the current expenditure of the Ministry of Commerce (except paragraph subsidies and social benefits).
2 - subsidies that include support for rice and wheat crops (buy the crop from farmers).
3 - social benefits which the amounts allocated to the import of the paragraphs of the ration card. Per capita was calculated on the basis of the number of beneficiaries of the ration card of 30 million people.
When calculating the costs ration card Altamoana the citizens when buying them directly from the local markets at a single price we decided to develop three scenarios are as follows:
Scenario 1: The Case similar to ordinary materials provided by the ration card system, equal to 11.5 thousand dinars.
Scenario 2: the case of medium-quality materials of better quality, which is distributed in the ration card and is equal to 18.5 thousand dinars.
Scenario 3: If any good materials with good quality much better than it is distributed in the ration card and is equal to 26.5 thousand dinars.
From the above, we find that the difference between the financial allocations in the federal budget and the value of the card Altamoana when purchased from local markets and the price of a single for the year 2013 (2171 billion dinars, according to the first scenario (ie the allocation of the budget exceeds the market price of $ 2171 billion dinars), according to the second scenario and third, we find that the following amounts 349 and 3139 billion dinars must increase its budget allocations for the purpose of providing citizens with a better quality vocabulary. no doubt that transparency helps to interrogate the audit budget and efficient use of financial resources towards rationalization,
The third example the average wages for public sector employees:
In this example we will highlight the vast difference between the level of wages in the institutions of the Iraqi state. Wage rate was calculated by dividing the amount of compensation of employees on the number of employees for each ministry or an independent body as contained in the federal budget 2013. As in the graph (2) listed below:
There is significant variation in the rate of wages between the ministries and independent bodies, for example, average wages Directorate disarmament and integration of militias reached 1.48577 billion dinars / year and the Office of the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces 823.75 million dinars / year, while the Ministry of Health 11.74 million dinars / year, the Ministry of Education 11.19 million / year, and the Ministry of Youth and Sports 7.28 million / year. This disparity calls into question all that is there justification for such a disparity, and what are the economic feasibility of him. Taking into consideration that the developed functional sites did not make the most part on the basis of efficiency, but for reasons related to the political loyalty of the national parties, which are supposed to be closer to the needs of the citizen.
We hope through this article to be offered a bit of clarification is necessary, which encourages the executive and legislative branches to continue to meet the requirements of transparency of information quickly.
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