[size=32]48 Arab summit .. Iranian file contends "or issues"- 1 Minute Ago
Over the course of 73 years, the Palestinian issue topped the agenda of Arab leaders in 47 summit meetings; other than an emergency summit to be held in Mecca this month, which has been contended with the Iranian file in the past four decades.
The Iranian issue was resolved at the Arab summit table for the first time in 1980 at the time of the outbreak of the Iran-Iraq war, and has been mentioned since then in most of the subsequent summits.
On May 18, Saudi King Salman bin Abdul Aziz called on leaders of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and Arab leaders to hold two Gulf and Arab summits in Makkah on Friday, as commercial vessels hit the UAE's territorial waters and two oil pumping stations in Saudi Arabia for attacks. , And increased tension between America and Iran.
Apart from the Mecca Summit, Arab leaders held 30 regular summit meetings and 13 other emergency summit meetings, including the Anshas (first summit) and Beirut (in response to the triple aggression against Egypt), three economic summits and a special six-party summit.
The Summit is expected to issue the Mecca Declaration, which will address many current issues in the Muslim world.
The summit is being held with many Arab countries not yet announcing their level of participation. The Syrian seat has been frozen since 2011 amid discussions in recent months about the possibility of returning to the Arab League. However, there are reservations that prevent this, according to the Arab League.
The most prominent stations of the Arab summits were as follows:
The Palestinian file
The first Arab summit was held in Egypt in 1946, and the Palestinian issue was a top priority.
The summit was organized according to observers within the emergency summits, and was attended by the seven founding countries of the Arab League: Egypt, East Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, Lebanon and Syria.
In Beirut in 1956, the second Arab summit was held in response to the tripartite aggression (Britain, France and Israel) on Egypt and the Gaza Strip. It came out with "Egypt's advocacy against aggression and support for the struggle of the Algerian people for independence from France."
The three loyalties
In the 1960s, Arab leaders held five summits, the first of which was held at the Arab League headquarters in Cairo, the first actual summit, according to observers, in 1964.
It also witnessed the Khartoum summit of 1967, following the Arab defeat to Israel in the June 1967 war, called for the elimination of the effects of the Israeli aggression, and launched three Arab evils: no peace, no negotiation, no recognition.
Conditions for peace
In the 1970s, Arab leaders held seven summits, beginning with the 1970 Summit in Cairo, boycotting Syria, Iraq, Algeria and Morocco.
Was held after the armed confrontation between Jordanians and Palestinians, known as "the events of Black September," and called on the participants to immediately end military operations between the two sides, and the release of detainees.
One of the highlights of that period was the 1973 Algiers Summit, initiated by Syria and Egypt, following the October 6, 1973 war against Israel, with Iraq and Libya boycotting the summit.
The participants agreed on two conditions for peace with Israel: Israel's withdrawal from all occupied Arab territories, foremost Jerusalem, and the restoration of the Palestinian people's rights.
In 1976, Saudi Arabia witnessed a special six-party summit, which included Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, Kuwait, Lebanon and the Palestine Liberation Organization only, to discuss the civil war in Lebanon, which erupted following political and religious tensions.
The Baghdad summit of 1978, the beginning of the Arab boycott of Egypt, against the backdrop of reaching a "framework" for peace with Israel (the peace treaty between Cairo and Tel Aviv was concluded in 1979).
The summit issued a resolution rejecting the agreement, calling on Egypt to withdraw it, banning a unilateral peace agreement with Israel, transferring the Arab League headquarters from Cairo to Tunisia and suspending Egypt's membership.
Iran for the first time
In the early 1980s, Arab leaders held a summit in Jordan, which issued resolutions, most notably the call for a ceasefire between Iraq and Iran (the 1980 Iran-Iraq war) and support for Iraq's legitimate rights to its land and water.
It also included a resolution rejecting Security Council resolution 242 (calling on Israel to withdraw from the territories occupied in 1967, but not yet implemented), as well as "the intention of the Arab leaders to drop the Camp David agreement."
The eighties, unlike the summit, went through six stations, the most prominent of which was the 1982 Fez summit in which Arab states implicitly recognized the existence of Israel, and came out with an Arab draft peace agreement with Israel, including Israel's withdrawal from the territories occupied in 1967 (not 1948).
While the Algiers Summit of 1988 issued resolutions including support for the Palestinian uprising and full solidarity with Iraq in its war against Iran.
In the 1990s, Arab leaders held four summits, the first in Baghdad in 1990, whose most prominent decisions were "to condemn the decision of the US Congress to consider Jerusalem as the capital of Israel."
In the same year, the Cairo summit was held following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The most prominent decision was to condemn the Iraqi aggression against Kuwait and not to recognize the annexation of Kuwait. At the request of Saudi Arabia, it was decided to send a joint Arab force to the Arabian Gulf.
After a six-year hiatus, Cairo held an emergency Arab summit in 1996, which included: Reaffirming the conditions for comprehensive peace with Israel.
Arab peace initiative
The first ten years of the new millennium saw 10 summits, interspersed with several Arab crises, as well as an Arab proposal for a peace initiative with Israel.
The most prominent of these summits, the summit of "Al-Aqsa Mosque" in Cairo 2000; following the Palestinian uprising at the time, and included in its statement a decision to establish funds to support the Intifada.
While the Beirut summit in 2002 saw the first Arab talk about East Jerusalem as the capital of the hoped-for Palestine instead of all of Jerusalem.
The summit, which was launched by the late King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz, called for the establishment of an internationally recognized Palestinian state on the 1967 borders, with East Jerusalem as its capital, and a just solution to the Palestinian refugee issue.
It also stipulates Israel's withdrawal from the Golan Heights and the territories still occupied in southern Lebanon, in exchange for Arab recognition of Israel and normalization of relations with it.
In the Egyptian city of Sharm el-Sheikh, the 2003 summit was held after the start of the US invasion (next to several countries) for Iraq, and its final statement stressed the need to respect the sovereignty of Iraq.
In 2005, after the assassination of Lebanese Prime Minister Rafic Hariri (2005), the Algiers Summit called for the Syrian withdrawal from Lebanon and the establishment of an Arab parliament. The summit was preceded by controversy over Algeria's request for reform of the Arab League.
At the Khartoum summit in 2006, a crackdown broke out in the Lebanese leadership. Lebanon was represented by two delegations, one headed by President Emile Lahoud, and the other by Prime Minister Fuad Siniora.
The 2008 Damascus Summit stressed the need to encourage contacts between the UAE and Iran to resolve the issue of the three islands (Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Abu Musa).
At the 2009 Doha summit, the Arab League, the International Criminal Court (ICC), called for a "warm welcome" to Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir, who has been issued an arrest warrant for "war crimes" in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The decision of the court.
The second decade of the new millennium saw nine summits, most of which came out with routine decisions on the Palestinian issue and the Iranian file.
The most prominent of these summits Baghdad Summit 2012, which was postponed because of the popular revolutions that hit a number of Arab countries beginning in late 2010.
This summit witnessed the freezing of Syria's membership in the Arab League (continuing until now).
The resolutions of the Sharm el-Sheikh 2015 and Dead Sea summits in Jordan 2017, Dhahran in Saudi Arabia 2018 and Tunisia 2019 did not come out of the previous ones, except to condemn the Saudi targeting of Houthi missiles and call for a peaceful resolution of the Syrian crisis.