Baghdad / term
Paul found himself in front of Salah choose between his religion and his crop, and Paul wheat farmer from outside Mosul fled with his family in front of the organization offering Daash hardline early August / August.
Swept through the organization and the family farm in the framework of which the attack, who seized large swathes of territory in northern Iraq. Two weeks later, Paul received a phone call from the Christian man said: he was a fighter from the organization Daash. The man asked, "We are in your store, why I'm not here to take care of your job?" He added: "Go back and we will ensure your safety, but you must be delivered and paid $ 500." When the man refused to Paul explained the sentence, saying, "We will take Qmg .. just to know that we did not Nsergh because we have given you an option."
And lists the farmers Varun similar stories and others point to the element of what little mention of the threat posed by the organization Daash for Iraq and the region.
It has become the organization now controls a large part of the wheat supply in Iraq. The United Nations estimates that the land under the control of the organization Daash provides up to 40% of the annual production of wheat to Iraq, one of the most important food in the country, as well as barley and rice.
It seems that its fighters planned to not just grab land, but also the management of resources and the management of the rule of succession which they declared unilaterally.
Wheat is one of the tools at their disposal, and the group began to use grain to fill their pockets and deny their opponents, particularly members of the Christian minorities and Yezidis of vital food supplies and to co-opt the year, while emphasizing its grip on the territory, which it captured.
As did the organization Daash in Syria has kept the region in northern Iraq, which represents the bread basket of the country on state employees and workers wheat silos in place to assist the organization in the management of his empire.
This represents the kind of tactics that make it one of the reasons Daash threat is more complicated than the al Qaeda network, which went out of her abaya, has focused on al-Qaeda hit and run attacks and suicide bombings but Daash is the same army and the government.
Said Ali Dayan Bend, who is president of the farmers union in the town drunk near the land controlled by Daash between Erbil and Mosul: "The wheat commodity strategy, and they are using him as much as they can." "It is certain that they want to review and act as if they were the government."
Occupies Sunni insurgents and their allies now more than one-third of Iraq and an area similar in neighboring Syria, but not limited sources of income for the group on the wheat only, but also include a "tax" imposed on business owners, looting and ransoms for the release of Westerners kidnapped and, in particular, the sale of oil to local traders.
He says Louay Khatib, a visiting fellow at the Center for the Brookings Doha in Qatar: The Oil generates millions of dollars each month, and helps to finance military operations Daash, as it is the reason for the targeting of air strikes led by the United States to the oil fields controlled by the organization in Syria.
Says Charles Lester, a visiting fellow at the Center last Brookings Doha: The "Daash presents himself as if he were completely state .. Loki can maintain that image and this representation is vital for the continued recruitment and legitimacy it depends on a sustainable source of income."
The seizure of crops and livestock
In early August / August continued Kurdish farmer Said Mustafa Hussein through binoculars Daash fighters carrying wheat to four trucks with shovels launched later in the direction of Arab villages. Hussein said: He does not know what happened to Qamha but he knows that the organization runs four mills in areas controlled by and is likely to Qamha grinding and selling.
And he had 54 tons of wheat at his farm in the village of Punjana northeast of Arbil, which wheat can not sell it to the government or silo dealers because of the fighting in the region.
Hussein said, "To make matters worse I was unable to prevent it .. I can not do anything, they took two generators from the village we were newly Tzlmnahma of the Kurdish government after a very long process."
And prevents panic the population to return, although the Kurdish fighters now control them. The neighbor said Abdullah Mahmoud Nmiq "We believe that Daash laying mines to prevent us from coming back." There are dozens of similar stories in the camps for displaced people throughout Kurdistan.
The farmer said Yunus Said God which is in the second and sixty years of age, "fled with money and gold, but left the wheat and furniture and everything else."
And he said, sitting in a tent in a camp run by the United Nations on the outskirts of Arbil, "claimed everything we have built over 20 years, we went back to zero."
Military and economic power
Cause after Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait in 1990 in Western sanctions on his country's dictator of Iraq, then set up a comprehensive system for the distribution of subsidized food in the country, and expanded this system in light of the United Nations "oil for food".
It is estimated Joy Gordon, professor of political philosophy at Fairfield University in Connecticut and author of "The Hidden War: the United States and Iraq sanctions" in 2012 that two-thirds of the Iraqis, "they rely primarily or entirely on food subsidies between 1990 and 2003.
The system survived in the face of the American invasion and the years of violence, and in the past few years have plagued the program, which is now run by the Iraqi government fully "irregular distributions" of food is to reduce dependence upon according to a report issued in June by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
And as a former economist at the USDA, about a quarter of Iraqis who live in rural areas were dependent on subsidized food before the latest outbreak of violence in the quarter, while the other is used as an addition to the supplemental food they buy.
Daash shows that the control of the wheat brings power, while the fighters swept through northern Iraq in June took control of the silos and grain stocks, and the attack coincided with the harvest of wheat and barley crops and delivery of the silos of government and private traders.
And controlled Daash now on all nine silos in Nineveh province, which stretches along the banks of the Tigris River, along with seven other silos in other provinces. During the three months that have elapsed since the invasion of Mosul, capital of Nineveh Daash fighters expelled hundreds of thousands of members of ethnic and religious minorities and seized hundreds of thousands of tons of wheat from fields abandoned.
Silo under attack
One of the goals of wheat silo in the town drunk and the silo has a capacity of 250 000 tons, or about 8% of the annual domestic production of Iraq in 2013.
And attacked the organization Daash drunk on the seventh day of August / August last year, but even during the weeks preceding it, and the group found a way to the silo and the procurement system private Iraqi state.
It is believed Abdul Redha Abdul Qader Ahmed, head of the silo that the organization has forced local farmers to mixing wheat product in other areas controlled by Daash with their harvest, and then sold to farmers as if he were drunk the whole planting in the region. In the weeks preceding the attack, the silo has bought 14 000 tons more than they bought in 2013. The value of wheat extra 9.5 million dollars almost artificially high price paid to farmers Baghdad.
It is believed that Ahmed Daash looking to make money out of wheat and ensure that the bread will be available for years in the areas controlled by them.
Ahmed said that his work is not to verify the source of wheat, but just buy it. He added: "We take all the wheat from farmers and ask them .. (Where did you get this?)"
Honer said Pope, a general manager of a local agriculture It is believed that the other traders and farmers sold their wheat from outside the region.
But Papa says that Baghdad pay dues wheat farmers usually two months after the delivery of their output, therefore it was not wheat growers about drunken -obaltala Daash organization - may have received payments after, when the fighters entered the town to organize the seventh day of June.
Prey to its fighters then Iraqi Kurdish Peshmerga fighters and fighters from the PKK. The Pope said that after the takeover regulation Daash sharpshooters posted on the silo there. Speculate that the fighters thought that American warplanes bombed the facility will not be located in the center of town. "They want to lure people to their side .. and especially Arabs. Perhaps this is why they did not do anything for wheat .. so as not to alienate people."
Controlled Daash on drunk for three days before being expelled Kurdish fighters and American air strikes on the sites of organization and not on the silo.
The air strikes hit the American grain silos in the northern Syrian town of Manbej on September 28. The group said that watching the war planes hit the treadmills and perhaps granaries error instead of the base Daash, had no immediate comment from Washington.
In many ways reproduces Daash in Iraq strategies developed in Syria. For example, say fighters organization they're in the year that took control of the city of Raqqa in northeast Syria allowed the former employees of the Assad regime to continue in the management of the mills, and established the group "Deewana" wheat responsible for the supply chain from harvest to the distribution of flour.
It can be seen in Iraq endeavor himself to keep things moving smoothly. The organization always avoid fighters destroyed government installations seized, and while dominated Daash the largest dam in Iraq kept the staff in their positions, and even bring in engineers from Mosul to carry out reforms, and tried to Baghdad also reduce disturbance to a minimum.
Said Hassan Ibrahim, head of the Iraqi Grain Board under the Ministry of Commerce, responsible for Iraq's purchase of wheat from the international market and local farmers, government employees in the areas controlled by Daash remain in regular contact with the office of President, and added that some of the workers in the areas of Daash come to Baghdad every nearly two weeks.
In the past few weeks Daash fighters disappeared from some areas in Mosul and Kirkuk because of the air strikes led by the United States. Ibrahim said that "the situation is stable," with the militant group's fighters to allow state employees to continue in the management silos.
He explained: that he had issued directives to his staff that try to remain calm and to deal smoothly with those people because Tabahm very violent. A: It should not be the face of their violence violently because they can kill from addressing them, and that the government's goal is to keep the wheat.
After the attack Daash in June Ibrahim received orders to freeze the salaries of workers in the areas Daash. He said that it bothered him because he can not stop the mills, and added that he needs for the survival of the people there as guards to try to persuade Daash that wheat is important for everyone.
Ibrahim says he persuaded his superiors to continue to pay salaries. A spokesman for the Ministry of Commerce, said that all government employees in Mosul received their salaries "through government-owned banks in Kirkuk, they are safer and more under the control of the government."
Ibrahim now and feel concerned about the farmers who have not received payments for wheat, which handed him in the weeks prior to the takeover Daash grain.
He said: Grains Council and the Ministry of Commerce are trying to payments farmers whether they live in areas controlled by the Islamic state or newly displaced them, "We want to help the farmers and not Daash."
Winning hearts and bellies
In some areas, it appears that the control of the wheat Daash received support from Sunnis.
He says Ihsan Al Muhairi, head of the union of Arab farmers in Hawija, which follow the government: The organization Daash gain popularity since his fighters to extend their control. He added that the attitude of rejection towards Baghdad Sunni Arabs in the country's push toward Daash people, but the ability of the organization to provide food also helped.
He explained, "They're handing out flour on the Arabs in the region, getting wheat from the silo Hawija, they run the mill and distribute it to people in a way very organized." Even those who have fled from wheat Daash considered one of the reasons the power of the group. She said Joumana Zawar, 54, a farmer now living in a camp movement outside of Erbil, "the price of a kilogram of wheat now between four thousand and five thousand dinars ($ 3.45 -4.30 dollars). Usual to have between ten thousand and 11 000 dinars. Sells Daash Sunni Arabs wheat Asergouna "a very cheap price, it is cheap because they Asergouna."
Zia contacted by a friend in the connector to make sure the latest prices, and said that friendly "price of food and the bread is very cheap." And control Daash impose price as is the case in Syria. "They're the government here now, they're going to bakeries and say (sold at that price)."
The big concern now is the crop next season, and the Agriculture Ministry official said that in the Iraqi province of Nineveh, where the capital of the caliphate, which the group announced a unilateral no 750 000 hectares (1.8 million acres) of wheat must be sown soon. The official said that the province is normally 100 000 farms, but thousands have fled.
The farmers get the Iraqis usually the seeds of the new season of their harvest current as retain some wheat for this purpose, and controlled Daash enough wheat and therefore should not have to find the seed problem, and also controls the offices of the Ministry of Agriculture in Mosul and Tikrit, which should be out by supply from agricultural fertilizers, but the problem will be to find those who have the know-how using seeds and fertilizers. He says Mohammed Diab, head of the regional office for the Middle East and North Africa, Central Asia and Eastern Europe in the World Food Programme said it was "highly unlikely" to return the displaced farmers.
He added that "the picture is grim in terms of agricultural production next year." "The area where there was displacement is the main granary of the country."
This is true especially for the non-Arab farmers of the year, and the fear of their land remained in areas outside the control of Daash that seizes militants soon on their villages and crops that were not harvested followed after.
And say that even if it does not you will not grow after the first rains usually come at the end of September or early October current.
He says farmers in the town of Sheikhan located amid fields of wheat they had no hope of access to seeds and fertilizers and fuel needed for agriculture because of the regional government in Mosul under the control of the Islamic state.
And ethyl Najafi said the governor of Nineveh who believes that production will decline next season The real problem lies in how to connect the seeds of present inside Mosul and surrounding areas.
Bashar Jammu and crosses the head of a local cooperative farmers also expressed concern. "The most important thing for us is agriculture, not security, you may Daash state and army .. but maybe what we all need is to be able to agriculture."
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