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Established in 2006 as a Community of Reality

Welcome to the Neno's Place!

Neno's Place Established in 2006 as a Community of Reality


Neno

I can be reached by phone or text 8am-7pm cst 972-768-9772 or, once joining the board I can be reached by a (PM) Private Message.

Established in 2006 as a Community of Reality

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Established in 2006 as a Community of Reality

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    A book that rereads war and state building: 4 factors for understanding Iraq and 5 American strategi

    Rocky
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    A book that rereads war and state building: 4 factors for understanding Iraq and 5 American strategi Empty A book that rereads war and state building: 4 factors for understanding Iraq and 5 American strategi

    Post by Rocky Sun 03 Mar 2024, 4:26 am

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    A book that rereads war and state building: 4 factors for understanding Iraq and 5 American strategies

    [size=45][You must be registered and logged in to see this image.]
    03-02-2024
    The American MIT University website presented a reading of a recently published book about Iraq under the title “Death, Hegemony, and State Building” by the American writer Roger Peterson, which deals with the policy and performance of the United States in Iraq, and the future of American military interventions.[/size]
    [size=45]A translated report by the University of Massachusetts Institute of Technology explained that Petersen's book provides details about military operations and political dynamics in Iraq, and also sheds new light on the challenges of the idea of ​​state building.[/size]
    [size=45]First, the report stated that the term “fog of war” expresses chaos and mystery on the battlefield, adding that people often cannot realize what was happening around them until it is too late. He continued, saying that more clarity has now emerged about the Iraq war.[/size]
    [size=45]The report indicated that Petersen, a professor of political science at the university, delves into the operations of war on the battlefield, political dynamics, and its long-term impact. The report pointed out that the United States began the Iraq War in 2003 and officially ended it in 2011, but Petersen analyzes the situation in Iraq to this day and examines what the future holds for this country.[/size]
    [size=45]According to the report, Petersen spent a decade of research for his book, and he identified 4 main factors in order to understand the situation in Iraq.[/size]
    [size=45]The first of these factors, according to the report, is that the American invasion created a state of chaos and ambiguity regarding the hierarchy between the Shiite, Sunni, and Kurdish forces.[/size]
    [size=45]The second of these factors is that, under these circumstances, groups that included a mixture of militias, political forces, and religious groups came to the fore and took over the elements of the new state that the United States was trying to establish.[/size]
    [size=45]As for the third factor, according to the report, by approximately the year 2018, the Shiite forces became dominant and established a hierarchy, and under this dominance, sectarian violence declined.[/size]
    [size=45]Fourth, the report said that organizations that were established many years ago are now largely integrated into the Iraqi state.[/size]
    [size=45]The report stated that Peterson also came to believe that there are two things about the Iraq War that are not fully appreciated. The first is the extent to which the United States' strategy has varied widely over time in response to changing circumstances.[/size]
    [size=45]The report quoted Peterson as saying, “This was not one war. It was several different and continuous wars, and we had at least 5 strategies from the American side.”[/size]
    [size=45]The report explained that while the stated goal of many American officials was to build a successful democracy in Iraq, the severe divisions in Iraqi society caused more military conflicts, between religious and ethnic groups, and therefore, the American military strategy changed with the development of this multilateral conflict. .[/size]
    [size=45]The report quoted Peterson as referring to what actually happened in Iraq, saying that “something that the United States and the Westerners did not understand at the beginning was the extent to which this would become a struggle for hegemony between the Shiites, Sunnis, and Kurds, and that while the United States thought it would build a state, the state would put pressure on Society and penetrate it, but it was society that created the militias and seized control of the state.”[/size]
    [size=45]Peterson pointed out that people are motivated when they believe that their group is not in the right place in the hierarchy, and these are feelings of resentment, and I think it is just human nature.[/size]
    [size=45]The report indicated that Petersen spent years interviewing people who were on the ground in Iraq during the war, from members of the US military to former insurgents to ordinary Iraqis, while analyzing data about the conflict on a large scale.[/size]
    [size=45]The report quoted Petersen as saying, “I did not reach conclusions about Iraq until 6 or 7 years after applying this method.”[/size]
    [size=45]According to the report, there is one main fact about Iraq that greatly influenced the course of the war, explaining that the Sunnis constituted about 20% or less of the country’s population, but they were politically dominant before the United States launched the military invasion, adding that after the United States overthrew United with former dictator Saddam Hussein, it created an opportunity for the Shiite majority to gain more power.[/size]
    [size=45]Petersen considered that the states were saying, “We will get democracy and think from an individual perspective, but things did not go that way.” He explained that what happened is that Shiite organizations became over the years the dominant force, and the Sunnis and Kurds have now become essentially subservient within this Shiite-dominated country. In addition, Petersen said, “The Shiites had advantages in organizing violence at the expense of the Sunnis, who are the majority. “They were on their way to winning.”[/size]
    [size=45]The report quotes from Peterson’s book that the central unit of power is the political militia, based on ethnic and religious identity, and that among them is the Badr Organization, which has trained professionally for years in Iran, and that the Iraqi leader, Mr. Muqtada al-Sadr, is able to recruit Shiite fighters from among the two million people living in Sadr City poor neighborhood. The report notes that no political militia wanted to support the establishment of a strong multi-ethnic government.[/size]
    [size=45]According to Petersen, they “liked this state of weakness,” adding that while “the United States wanted to build a new Iraqi state, what we did was create a situation where multiple, large Shiite militias make deals with each other.”[/size]
    [size=45]The report continued that these dynamics meant that the United States had to change military strategies several times, noting that the five strategies identified by Petersen were: clarity-steadiness-building (CHB), secondly, decapitation, thirdly, community mobilization, fourthly, homogeneity, and fifthly, engaging in combat. .[/size]
    [size=45]According to the book, government data indicate that the United States was also able to suppress violence fairly effectively at times, especially before 2006 and after 2008. Peterson wondered, saying, “If the attempt to create a new state in Iraq is likely to always lead to... To strengthen Shiite power, is there really much that the United States could have done differently? He added, “This is a million-dollar question.”[/size]
    [size=45]In addition, the report stated that the new book received much praise from researchers in the field of foreign policy. The report quoted University of Chicago political scientist Paul Staniland as saying that the book combines “intellectual creativity with careful attention to the dynamics on the ground,” and is “a fascinating, aggregate-level account of the politics of collective competition in Iraq.” He added that this book is a must-read for anyone interested in the Civil War, US foreign policy, or the politics of violent nation-building.[/size]


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