While the tribe solved replace the state!
d. Ibrahim al-Haidari
To answer this question , we ask the problematic state and the spirit of citizenship and identity to search, where Iraq has not seen until the formation of the national government at the beginning of the last century with a strong national sovereignty and the rule of the central state. And that most of the countries that were occupied by authoritarian seized control by force and repression, since the fall of Baghdad by Hulagu in 1256 , which marked the beginning of the social and cultural decadence, even the founding of the Iraqi state in 1921.
The weakness of central authority in Iraq during the past centuries, wars and conflicts nomadic waves successive displaced him, along with the tyranny of the rulers and the governors and their weakness, helped bring the emirates and chiefdoms and local authorities and communities and different groups have provided fertile ground to strengthen the spirit of tribal and re - production values, customs and partisanship tribal, even preserves both the ruler and the ruled on his interests and defend "Derth" and protected. Which helped to consolidate the values and tribal fanaticism, sectarianism and local values at the expense of national and urban mores and democracy, where the solution of loyalty to the tribe , place loyalty to the state and the nation.
The underdevelopment of social and economic stagnation and the development of a semi - feudal system helped the disintegration of the structure of the tribe and the peasants turned to undertake farm laborers working in their lands, in addition to the failure of methods and relations of agricultural production and the tyranny of the Senate and oppression. All this has led to a decline in the productivity of the land and the exploitation of the elderly adult owners of the land exploitation abomination, to pay to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of peasants to the cities to look for work and a better life. Only a few decades later , and did not become immigrants from the Iraqi countryside they make up the majority of the population of the big cities. Because of the rural origins and values, customs and tribal fanaticism took every group of them attracts the feelings of loyalty to the tribe, clan, caste, according to the degree of social and cultural role and function and presence in public life evolution. The top loyalty to the tribe , values and customs of the clan of parental characteristics - the Patriarchate, which is the living expression of the soul tribal entrenched in the Arab community, and loyalty to the sect as a configuration socially - religious based on specific religious or sectarian practice, which is gaining over time a social character and political pattern.
In spite of attempts by the national government, since the formation of the Iraqi state, the integration of tribes and clans in the civil society and the development of an enlightened middle class carried on shoulders of modernization and progress, the rise of the Baath Party to power on Iraq to a rentier state - inclusive. In order to install power in the stranglehold the state has seen for the first time the integration of the tribe 's military establishment through cohesion Alaqraba, regional , tribal , which fact assigning base planned for the state apparatus and the party, which has encouraged the overlapping values and customs of tribal values and customs of the military establishment and urban life and generate forms of traditional cohesion that helped the concentration of power in the hands of the tribe and destroy the traditional parliamentary state by multiplying the mass organizations and the weakening of social classes, particularly the middle class and disassembled, which helped retrieve the tribal relations some strength and customs of the consolidation and re - use "laws" clan, Caldeh separation allowance and revenge, decisiveness and others, became so clan substitute for a number of civil society organizations ..
this combination of community is natural born generation does not know the meaning of belonging to the homeland and loyalty of the modern state and the spirit of citizenship and not party affiliation or trade union. It is not surprising to regain the tribe and the community, which is the religious face of the other tribe, their authority and that the show of new alliances and feuds tribalism and sectarianism in all Iraqi provinces and organize themselves to play a significant political role after the fall of the former regime and the collapse of the totalitarian state with its institutions and its bureaucracies. After the invasion and occupation weak state has not been able to generate forms of cohesion and urban integration between the layers of the various community groups and unite them in a national identity and a single.
It 's natural to exploit the social components, ethnic, religious, tribal, sectarian and others, the transition period troubled through which Iraq with the help of the occupying forces and the weakness of the state and the disintegration of institutions and chaos and destructive violence, terrorism and lawlessness that nationwide to achieve their interests and ambitions and goals , and practiced various methods and techniques , legal and illegal to redefine itself and assurance sub - identity on the basis of ideology.
If the tribal and sectarian and social function and role, understanding the function and role of the former to create a modern state. The tribe originally a social composition of the pre - modernist mainly based on units of blood and kin and have a tendency fanatic express loyalty to the tribe and affiliation rather than the state and the nation, and the importance of social and role lies in preserving the unity of the tribe, values and customs of resolving tribal disputes within the Bedouin community / pastoral, not urban, it can not be a substitute for Islamic values and modernity and urbanization values because they are contrary to human rights and civil society institutions. The problem is that it has turned the day into a political project and the transformation of the role of host to what looks like a political party held a political clan alliances, deals and "invasions" clan.
As the exacerbation of loyalty to the tribe and belonging to the sect but poses a great challenge to build a modern state and the spirit of citizenship and identity , where Iraqi society is now divided against itself to tribes and communities and areas, shops, conflicts and disputes and feuds clan to cities and neighborhoods and state institutions , civil society and transformed. Since the fall of the former regime , it was formed 14 tribal council and the occupation authorities to establish a link with the tribal office and inauguration of the headquarters of the Union of the clan and the presence of Governor - General. As has been established Awakening tribes in 2006 and support councils in 2007. In spite of its importance vessels in the restoration of security, it is possible to exploit the political hard times and turn it into a fifth column, as well as its role in strengthening the norms and values of tribal partisanship that contradict chiefly with democracy.
In fact , the occupation forces tried to create new balances: Awakening tribal versus sectarian Awakening, anew militia against the old militias. On November 16 2008 was established "princes of Iraq 's tribal council" of Arabs, Kurds, Turkmen, Christians , and the Sabians and the Yezidis to ensure tribal traditions and customs and "partisanship" Tribal, according to the "supreme national interest" and "consensual democracy". Founding statement has found support from the government, as has been established circle of tribal affairs in the Interior Ministry and the appointment as Minister of State for Tribal Affairs in the Ministry of second - Maliki. Finally , a project called the Iraqi clans and tribes fateful law. That means not put obstacles and hurdles in front of the application and practice of democracy?!
The tribalism that has taken hold in Iraqi society today exactly what it once was different, where the function of the tribe as a social institution / economic aimed at preserving the unity of the tribe and its members, values, customs and solidarity of its members in good times and bad , whether in the desert or countryside, but today Vtaml tribe and sect to subdue members of civil society for political goals and personal interests and social control beyond the limits of the function of the tribe to confirm its role in the sharing of power or to be a substitute for the state. Political developments that followed the fall of the regime and overall chaos broad prospects to enter the political forces and parties and civil society organizations to the political stage, including tribal, religious and sectarian institutions, which managed to assemble its members through self - interest coalitions and with the help of the occupying forces and weak governments that formed on the basis of political / sectarian quota has been opened.
The growing political role of the institution of tribal and sectarian highlights many of the risks, the problem is more than being a substitute for the institutions of the rule of law and civil society, but because they present themselves as an alternative to the Constitutional Institutions and democracy elected, but they do not have any form of democratic forms and does not have a political and economic programs and clear cut, but mostly centered on the demands of Tgalbah and narrow self - interest to get the key positions in the state quota system compatibility, so it came finally to fight over positions on sovereign ministries. The sectarian quota formula par excellence is in fact wrap on the results of the election and distort the democratic process vaunted all participating in the government parties, as they obstruct the march of democracy fledgling being put itself as an alternative to civil society institutions, and thus penetrate the values and customs of the Asbyatea urbanization and the values of democracy and stand against the citizenship and modernity and the processes of change and change.
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