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Established in 2006 as a Community of Reality

Welcome to the Neno's Place!

Neno's Place Established in 2006 as a Community of Reality


I can be reached by phone or text 8am-7pm cst 972-768-9772 or, once joining the board I can be reached by a (PM) Private Message.

Established in 2006 as a Community of Reality

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    The philosophy of total quality management and its stages of development -1-

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    The philosophy of total quality management and its stages of development -1- Empty The philosophy of total quality management and its stages of development -1-

    Post by Rocky Mon 28 Mar 2022, 5:09 pm

    [size=32][rtl]The philosophy of total quality management and its stages of development -1-[/rtl]

    April 7, 2014
    The philosophy of total quality management and its stages of development -1-

    Mona Abdul Razzaq Hussain

    It is no secret to anyone that the nature of the current situation is the intense competition in the production and services sector and the diversity of methods and techniques used, as well as the acceleration of the movement of change in an unprecedented manner, which makes the company or institution in a state of constant research and striving to guarantee it a share or position in the market and its field of work, and this The characteristic has become a accompaniment to all types of services and sectors, as well as at all levels, whether large, medium and small establishments.

     As a result, several concepts have emerged accompanying this competitive atmosphere, and these concepts constitute a means of entering and continuity in the world of competition with strength and empowerment, and if applied and taken as solid foundations in dealing, they guarantee the company stability and progress. Now, thanks to the huge amount of information and communication technologies, it has become a distinctive feature of the data of modern human thought, especially that contemporary scientific management has contributed greatly to the development of the structure of economic organizations in a large way.

    Quality has become one of the most important principles of management at the present time. In the past, management believed that the success of the company means manufacturing products and providing services faster and cheaper, then seeking to sell them in the market, and providing services for those products after selling them in order to fix the apparent defects in them.

    Awareness of quality has increased since the end of World War II, when the importance was attached to inspection and control, as Japanese companies began to invite European scientists to develop the concept of quality in Japanese companies. At this time, Edward Deming is considered the pioneer of American quality, the most prominent who used and applied statistical quality control, as he relied on collecting information on the level of quality through control of production processes during their implementation, and then analyzed it using statistical methods in order to determine the level of quality achieved.

      The first stages of quality awareness was the stage of attention to inspection and examination, which was carried out using technical means since the emergence of the large production system. Quality was usually followed up during the production process itself, where the focus in measuring quality was limited to the examination process, where the defective was excluded from it and the examination was random. Based on statistical estimates, the responsibility for quality control was confined to the quality manager, and the inspection and examination process was for quality purposes only. Also, attention was not paid to knowing and returning the causes of defects and tracking them, and the products were not free of defects at this stage. During that period, the concept of quality revolved around conforming to specifications only, where the Designing the product according to what the product wants, not. Then the theories and management practices that emphasize quality followed, until the American companies developed and expanded the concept of strategic quality management by adding more comprehensive and in-depth aspects and used advanced methods in the field of quality improvement and dealingIt is noted that TQM is an extension of strategic quality management, but TQM is more profound and comprehensive than strategic quality management until TQM crystallized as a general management philosophy that focuses on the effective use of material resources. The organization’s human and human capacity to satisfy the needs of customers and achieve the organization’s goals, within the framework of compatibility with the requirements of society.

     First: The concept of quality, its content, dimensions and methods.

     Despite the emergence of the concept of quality a long time ago, it did not appear as an official function of management until recently, as quality is seen in modern administrative thought as a function that is completely equivalent to the rest of the functions such as the procurement function, the engineering function, marketing research and others, and it has become It deserves attention from the top management of organizations.

     (1) The concept of quality:

     It is the ability to produce a good or service that meets the needs of the consumer, and it is a variable dependent on measurement according to the specifications set and pre-determined by specialists, that is, it is the sum and characteristics of the product that appear in its ability to meet the specific and implicit needs of the consumer in an effort to satisfy him, and since the consumer’s needs change with time and consequently The process of achieving quality becomes an endless goal, and quality also creates and develops a base of values ​​and beliefs that make every employee know that quality is the primary goal of the facility. And quality as it is in the Oxford Dictionary means a high degree of quality or value.

     Quality represents the set of features and characteristics of the product that determine its suitability to achieve the purpose for which it was produced to meet the expected consumer desires. . Juran defines quality as (suitability for use), that is, whenever the service or manufactured good is suitable for the beneficiary's use, the more good it is. Crosby defines it with a definition that requires three conditions to achieve quality:

     1- Fulfill the requirements.

     2- The absence of defects.

     3- Executing the work correctly from the first time and every time.

     Deming defines it with a brief definition, but it almost combines the two definitions, as he says that quality is the fulfillment of the needs and expectations of the beneficiary, now and in the future.

     The International Standard for Quality Terminology, issued in 1994, included a definition of quality as: the set of properties and overall characteristics that the product / service possesses and its ability to achieve needs and satisfaction or conformity to purpose - Fitness For Use. Quality is Fitness for use is the most appropriate definition of quality, and validity can be determined for the purpose of the following six factors:-

    1- Adequacy of Design: It is the extent to which the design fits the purpose for which it was established, in other words, the extent to which the design specifications meet the customer's requirements.

     2- Conformance to Design: The extent of conformity with the design specifications after the completion of the manufacturing process, and based on this factor, the labor responsibilities towards quality are determined. The time-related capabilities of the product.

     3- Availability: The extent to which the customer can use the product when desired, and it is said that the product is available for use when it is in its operational state.

     4- Reliability: The probability that the product will perform a specific function under known operating conditions with continued performance for a specified period of time and without failure.

     5- Maintainability: How easy it is to perform inspections and maintenance of the product. There are two ways to perform maintenance: preventive maintenance and remedial maintenance.

     6- Producability: The extent to which the design can be manufactured using the available means, methods and processes for the human cadres working in the institution.

     Quality is defined according to the content of ISO 9000 for the year 2000 as “the set of distinctive characteristics of a product (or activity, process, organization or person) that make it responsive to the stated and expected needs or able to meet them.” To the extent that the product meets the needs and expectations, we describe it as a good or high product. Quality or poor quality, expresses the needs stated in the purchase or sale contract with specific specifications for the product to be bought or sold.

     Some researchers believe that quality means different things for each individual or institution, and therefore quality can be defined according to the principle of focus as follows:-

     Customer focus: Deming and Juran define quality as “customer satisfaction” or “meeting the purpose.” This approach depends on the company’s ability to identify customer requirements and then implement these requirements. This definition of customer-focused quality is very suitable for companies with related services. Direct customers or that depend in the performance of its service on a large number of employees.

    Process focus: From Crosby’s definition of quality as “conforming to requirements.” This definition gives more importance to the role of management in quality control, as the role of the process and method in providing the service is what determines the quality of the final product, and therefore the focus here is internal and not external, and this definition is suitable for companies that provide “standard services”, which do not require great contact with customers .

    C- Focusing on value: Quality is sometimes defined as “the cost in relation to the product, and the price to the customer” or “meeting the customer’s requirements on the basis of quality, price, and possibility.” Therefore, the focus here is also external, by comparing quality with price and possibility.

     (2) Content of the definition of quality:-

    1- Reputation of the establishment: The reputation of the establishment is affected by the quality of its products, whether those products are good or bad.

     2- The credibility of the good or service: which must be consistent with the customers' needs in terms of installation, operation and simple maintenance that the customer performs himself.

     3- International quality: The local product must have a quality that matches imported products that may outperform it in terms of quality and price.

     (3) Dimensions of quality:-

     The good or service has multiple dimensions and characteristics:

    Item Quality Dimensions:-

     Performance: How the job is performed and its features.

     Appearance: the physical characteristics of the commodity.

     Capability: Performing the required work under specific operating conditions in a specified period of time.

     Conformity: compliance with the specifications specified in the contract or by the customer.

     Durability: comprehensive and lasting benefit from the goods


    The supporting structure for the culture of quality.

     (1) Developing a culture of quality:-

      The founders of the science of quality, Deming and Crosby, emphasized in their books the importance of building a culture of quality, as a necessary precondition, for organizations to succeed in their endeavors to improve quality. Building an appropriate quality culture for the organization is vital to its development.

     What is the meaning of quality culture?

     While there are several definitions of culture, the following definition of a group’s quality culture can be used: “A quality culture is a set of quality-related values ​​that are learned jointly in order to develop an organization’s ability to cope with the external conditions that surround it and to manage its internal affairs” (Adkarshine , Organizing Culture and Leadership, 1985).. There is a distinction between the general culture in society and the culture within the institution, and although the latter can be affected by the general culture, it can be built within the institution. Examples of general values ​​of quality are the following:

    Management values:

     Belief in continuous quality improvement.

     Considering quality as a strategic factor for the management’s work.

    Giving quality the most attention in organization.

    Responsibility for quality is distributed among all production departments.

    Paying attention to the happiness of the employees of the organization and motivating them, because customer satisfaction is the result of satisfying its employees.

    Employee values:

    Each worker is responsible for the quality of what he produces.

     The necessity of carrying out the work without errors the first time.

    The goal of the worker is to produce without defects.

    Employee participation is essential to improving quality in the organization.

    Constant problem solving should be the basis for action.

     In order to reach these values, it is necessary to analyze the gap that exists between the desired values ​​of quality and the prevailing values ​​in the institution, and to find corrective solutions to address this gap, which helps the institution to achieve its goals and its ability to compete.

    (2) The necessity of providing technical infrastructure that supports quality:

     The provision of quality supporting infrastructure has become of great importance nowadays to achieve product quality and to remove technical obstacles that prevent it from entering foreign markets. Although obtaining a certificate of conformity for one of the ISO 9000 standards is important to increase export opportunities and improve quality, it is not sufficient. This is because countries prioritize health, safety and environmental protection among their import priorities, and require the fulfillment of technical conditions with regard to specifications, tests, and others. This can only be achieved with serious interest in supporting and developing infrastructure related to measurement, calibration, specifications, analysis and testing.

     (3) Establishment of national bodies to coordinate quality activities:-

     Due to the fact that many entities carry out activities related to quality, and the lack of coordination among them, and the absence of a department concerned with organizing and developing their work in order to achieve the required public policy for quality and its objectives. The need calls for the necessity of establishing national bodies to manage and direct these activities.

    (4) The tasks of the higher management of the institution towards the quality management system.

    - Issuing and implementing the quality policy and objectives of the institution.

    Ensure that the quality policy and objectives are communicated to all employees of the organization in order to raise awareness

    Motivation and employee participation.

    Ensure that customers’ demands are understood at all levels of the organization.

    Ensuring that the necessary processes that are applied are capable of transforming customer demands

    and related parties concerned and achieving goals.

    Ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of the documented quality management system to achieve quality objectives.

    Ensure that the necessary resources are available to the institution.

    Periodic review of the quality management system.

    Take appropriate decisions related to the quality policy.

    Take appropriate decisions to improve the quality management system.

     The main requirements for the application of total quality management.

     The application of the concept of total quality management in the organization requires some requirements that precede the start of applying this program in the organization so that employees can be prepared to accept the idea and then strive towards achieving it effectively and limiting its desired results.

    Here are some of the main requirements for the application.

     First: Reshaping the culture of the institution.

    The introduction of any new principle in the institution requires a reconfiguration of the culture of that institution, as the acceptance or rejection of any principle depends on the culture and beliefs of the employees in the institution.

     The (quality culture) is fundamentally different from the (traditional administrative culture) and therefore it is necessary to find this appropriate culture to implement the concept of total quality management, by changing the administrative methods, and in general, the appropriate environment must be created to implement this new concept, including new cultures.

    Second: Promotion and marketing of the program.

     The dissemination of the concepts and principles of total quality management to all employees in the organization is necessary before making a decision to implement. Marketing the program helps a lot in a little opposition to change and identifying the expected risks that cause the application so that it can be reviewed, and the program is promoted by organizing lectures, conferences or training courses to introduce the concept of quality and its benefits to the institution.

     Third: Education and training.

     In order for the concept of total quality management to be applied correctly, participants must be trained and educated in the methods and tools of this new concept so that it can be based on a sound and solid foundation and thus lead to the desired results from its application.

    As the application of this program without awareness or understanding of its principles and requirements may lead to catastrophic failure. Full awareness can be achieved through effective training programs.

    The goal of the training is to spread awareness and enable the participants to identify the methods of development, and this training should be directed to all categories and levels of management (executive body, managers, supervisors, employees) and the requirements of each category must be met according to the challenges they face. The training of the executive body must include the implementation strategy, while the training of the work teams must include the technical methods and methods for developing operations. In general, the training must address the importance of quality, its tools and methods, the necessary skills, methods for solving problems, making decisions, principles of effective leadership, statistical tools and methods of performance measurement.
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