Media women in Iraq .. Reality and Challenges
Friday 28-10-2016 | 12:03:35
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Nibras Maamouri / saw Iraq after 2003 open to the media and a large disciplines all, and the number of women working in the media field is remarkable, especially after the private media sector appearance dramatically, where the number of satellite channels, local channels, the 100 Foundation, paralleled in many print and broadcast journalism, this led to become the media in Iraq is not an integral part of public and private life of the community and individuals part, accompanied by all this technical development to the media and information, especially social media (networking sites) and occupy an important and influential position in everyday life.
Although security conditions and even economic, women working in the media sector have proved their worth in the introduction of radio and television journalist, editing and seeking better to offer, it featured several names of journalists Tozaan the different disciplines, but the designation and presentation standards and grant opportunities have not been real, professional and fair controls, which led to the presence of a huge amount of workers in this field do not live up to the level required, forming a real obstacle to the best, and perhaps the spread of partisan and factional institutions and quotas, and the absence of independent institutions, the impact on the general media scene, and this is reflected negatively on the media women; Vetoagdaa is still conditional on a series of obstacles that limit provided in the workplace, however, the Constitution stipulates in Article 14 that the Iraqis are equal regardless of religion, sex, etc ... but the women have not yet attained maturity of equality, was not far away from quotas, nepotism and clientelism, and the dominance of the powerful forces positions and government sites.
The proportion of women's presence information in the actual decision-making positions are still modest and do not reflect the true picture represented in this sector, which is still absent from active participation in the presidency of media institutions in overseeing the political programs, and absent from the inaugural column, and perhaps limited presence on the written terms of affair women, aware of the various media institutions this fact and evade mentioned, can be cited the absence of women's representation in the board of Trustees of the Iraqi media network and the media and communications and the Ministry of culture, and in this regard the work of media women Forum Iraqi women and with the help and support the Iraqi women network clicking, for the purpose include the Iraqi media network Law quota by not less than one-third, it has recently passed the law, including that.
Showed a field study about the reality of media women under the supervision of specialists .. that discrimination based on gender quotas and lack of fairness and equality, which voted 67% of the female journalists that there is no equality of opportunity for the assumption of positions of responsibility between informatics and media and weak participation in local and international conferences and not given a chance insufficient training and development, and that 46% of them did not receive Al bonus material or a letter of thanks in spite of submitting not distinctive workers and deliberately some media unlike the stereotype of women through programs or themes written in the newspapers and the absence of the leadership role that must be assumed by.
I pointed out the study, said 1% Director and 9% Head 90% employee despite the lapse of more than twenty years on its work and, unfortunately, not the Caviar until now no woman journalist management media organization governmental and non-governmental organizations, despite the fact that the Iraqi media recently acknowledged Network Act to ensure the quota in the House Trustees by at least one-third, but the government did not comply with this, and appointed two of the board of Trustees of the network a man and a woman outside the constitutional and legal contexts entitled to the automatic nomination and compete away from quotas, and vote for them in the House of Representatives, and the decision came to take away a woman's seat in spite of slots are two women, not one by the quota.
Of the problems and difficulties that female journalists are facing the issue of harassment and harassment have complained that many of the journalists expose them to harassment, it reflected clearly through the questionnaire, which showed that 68% of them have been subjected to verbal harassment and touch are often verbal harassment on the street, and attributed 40% of them cause continue to work for fear of defamation and 24% because of financial need and 36% do not insult the other.
Most cases of harassment and harassment were not reported due to the nature of the society in which we live in a patriarchal view of the prevailing prejudices about women's work in the media. Also, the Iraqi Penal Code lacks legal substance strict punishing sexual harassment of women at work or because of work, but there is a legal rule is still valid and is Article 402, which refers to the fine harasser 75 dinars only for his release, and this is a shortcoming in the laws, in addition to what we have said all women journalists are exposed to the kind of violence is linked to social networking sites and Facebook and defamation by fabricating news or action fake pages, images and clips Video is real.
Recently suffered three journalists were beaten by the head of the institution or the director of the section, and the reason for the beating she demanded monthly Bratbha This recorded and documented the Legal Clinic own forum informatics, after it had registered a formal complaint accompanied by a medical report, confirming being battered, lifted later to the police stations and the judiciary to hold this is a necessary and significant shift in the press that the woman took a break the wall of silence and fear.
The most important problems and challenges faced by women journalists:
- The dominance of customs, traditions and perception of masculinity.
- The absence of legislation guaranteeing the rights of women in general and the absence of a commitment, including approved them.
- The deterioration of the security situation and the assassination of more than 30 press releases and the threat of displacement and Other.
- Exposure to harassment and harassment at work and the street.
- Discrimination on the basis of gender in the privileges and rewards and Ambassrwaltrchih to participate in international and regional Almutmrat.
- The absence of legal guarantees and official contracts in the media institutions, which led to the loss of the right of many journalists to receive monthly salaries and expose them to beatings and abuse as a result of Mtalapthn so.
- The quota system and the lack of independence of the media organization's policy.
- The absence of the press by the Presidency of media organizations and women's vulnerability to assume decision-making positions.
- The weakness of attention to training and development, capacity building, and often do the job of civil society organizations either institution It examines about it or nominate men for training workshops, especially those held abroad.
- Include the quota in the draft proposal CMC currently on the table in the House bill by at least 30%, based as stated in the National Plan for the activation of UN Security Council Resolution No. 1325/2000.
- Back on the appointment decisions issued by Mr. Haider al-Abadi Prime Minister outside the framework of the law and the Constitution for members of the Board of Trustees of the Iraqi Media Network, and in respect of the Federal Court's decision in the case numbered (90) and Mouhdadtha 99/107 / Federal / 2015, dated 27 / 6/2016 which approved the cabinet nomination for membership in the network, but he stipulated that approval by the House of Representatives, by appointment pursuant to the provisions of Article (47 (of the Constitution of the Republic of Iraq, and committed decision the House of Representatives adapting Article (8 / II) of the Iraqi media network Law No. (26) for the year 2015, to ensure a balance between the legislature and the executive in this area.
- Implementation of the contents of the Iraqi Media Network, which recently passed the law, particularly regarding the selection of members of the Board of Trustees of the network and a commitment by the quota for women stipulated by law.
- Achieving gender balance in the Ministry of Culture in terms of deputy ministers and directors-general and the prime sections have offices in both ministries.
* Keep the appointment decision in media positions for political decision and the quota system, it is often women are being excluded to become a choice between male journalists.
- Informatics provide an opportunity to take advantage of the training courses offered by governmental and non-governmental institutions and strive to build their capabilities and develop their skills Press.
- The legislature demanding legislation illegal material private sexual harassment and not to resort to alternatives from other legal substances such as (defilement) The fact that this crime differ from crime of sexual harassment in terms of their impact and the gravity of the punishment.
- The inclusion of women journalists reward incentive and letters of appreciation for their support to continue to work and provide the best in the governmental and non-governmental institutions.
- Documented cases of violations against journalists and continuously through the introduction of monitoring and follow-up in the center of the media and communications and the journalists' union, unions and organizations and to prosecute those responsible and to encourage female journalists to report cases of abuse through education and awareness campaigns.
- The adoption of formal contract system in the private sector for the purpose of protecting women journalists from cutting salary or dismissal without justification and accountability of the organization that do not adhere to it.
- Changing the prevailing stereotypes about women in the media and work on developing a media strategy has changed that view and enhance the status of women in society through the production of programs and reports enhance the status of women and show its achievements and its role and constitutional Asthakaguetha