[size=30]Iraq and the search for hydrogen energy.. Water fractionation using electricity to generate energy!
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Yes Iraq: Baghdad
While Iraq is experiencing a real crisis in the lack of energy and means and sources of electricity production, and its dependence on imported gas, which decreases from time to time by Iran, and the challenges of global requirements to reduce carbon emissions and shift towards clean energy, the Ministry of Oil recently revealed the agreement and intention of the German company Siemens to supply the energy sector. In Iraq, hydrogen technologies are being used as part of future plans for the transition towards renewable energy.
The ministry said in a statement that, in line with the Iraqi government program and the plans and efforts of the Ministry of Oil to shift to clean and renewable energy in cooperation with reputable international companies, the Ministry of Oil and the German company “Siemens” have begun to open up prospects for serious cooperation in the clean and renewable energy sector, especially hydrogen production, which It is one of the most important pillars of the transformation of clean energy, environmental protection, reducing emissions and achieving the goals of the green fuel revolution.
The statement explained that "Siemens will support the energy sector in Iraq with advanced technologies and equipment in this field, and establish specialized workshops that contribute to finding realistic solutions for energy and the environment in Iraq, as well as harnessing artificial intelligence programs to raise performance rates for workers in this field to reach an environmentally friendly environment." Clean, safe and renewable energy supports the national economy and sustainable development.”
It is unknown to what extent Iraq can turn to producing energy with hydrogen, especially since this technology is relatively new to the world and is still on a small scale and at expensive prices.
More than one country around the world has begun to invest in this energy, including the United Arab Emirates, which signed a cooperation agreement with the Federal Government of Germany, to launch an expanded program that includes forming a working group between the two sides in the field of green hydrogen and industrial fuels.
What is green hydrogen?
Most of the gas already widely used as an industrial chemical is either brown, if made through coal gasification (the conversion of the carbon in the coal into gaseous compounds); or grey, if made through steam reforming of methane, which typically uses natural gas as feedstock, neither of these processes is entirely carbon-friendly.
The cleaner option is known as blue hydrogen, where the gas is produced by steam reforming of methane but emissions are reduced using carbon capture and storage. This process can roughly halve the amount of carbon produced, but is still far from being emissions-free.
By contrast, green hydrogen can nearly eliminate emissions by using renewable energy — which is increasingly abundant and often generated in less-than-ideal times — to power water electrolysis.
Green hydrogen is produced from water, via a large electrolyzer and ample supplies of electricity, and if the electricity comes from renewable sources like wind, solar or hydrogen, then hydrogen is effectively green.
Where the electrolysis device analyzes the water into its primary elements, hydrogen and oxygen, and the oxygen is utilized.
The challenge now is that large electrolyzers are in short supply, and ample supplies of renewable electricity still come at a steep price, with electrolysis being too expensive.
Third: How is it stored and used?
In theory, there are a lot of useful things that can be done with green hydrogen. It can be added to natural gas and burned in thermal power plants or central heating, and it can be used as a precursor to other energy carriers, from ammonia to synthetic hydrocarbons, or to power fuel cells. Directly in cars and ships, for example.
It can also be used simply to replace the industrial hydrogen produced annually from natural gas which amounts to about 10 million metric tons in the United States alone.
The main problem in satisfying all these potential markets is getting green hydrogen where it is needed. Storing and transporting flammable gas is not easy; It takes up a lot of space and steel pipes may not be efficient in transporting it. For this reason, transporting large quantities of hydrogen will require special pipelines.
Fifth: How much does it cost to make green hydrogen?
Green hydrogen remains expensive to produce today, and in a report published in 2019 (using data from 2018), the International Energy Agency estimated the cost of green hydrogen to be between $3 and $7.50 per kilo, compared to $0.90 to $3.20 for production using regasification. steam methane.
Reducing the cost of the electrolyzer will be critical to reducing the price of green hydrogen, but it will take time and scope.
The International Energy Agency said electrolyzer costs could be cut in half by 2040, from about $840 per kilowatt of capacity today.
A feasibility study for green hydrogen requires very large amounts of cheap renewable electricity because a fair amount is lost to electrolysis, and the efficiency of the electrolyzer ranges from about 60 to 80 percent, according to Shell.
The efficiency challenge is compounded by the fact that many applications may require green hydrogen to operate a fuel cell, leading to further losses.
Sixth: How much green hydrogen is produced?
Green hydrogen currently accounts for less than 1 percent of total annual hydrogen production, according to Wood Mackenzie, a global energy, chemicals, renewables, metals and mining consultancy group.
But Wood Mackenzie expects a production boom in the coming years, as green hydrogen electrolyzer projects nearly tripled in the five months leading up to April 2020, to reach 8.2 gigawatts, and the increase was primarily driven by an increase in electrolyzer deployments. On a large scale, with 17 projects scheduled to have a capacity of 100 megawatts or more.
By 2027, the average size of electrolyzer systems is likely to exceed 600 megawatts, says Wood Mackenzie.
Seventh: Who is leading the development of green hydrogen?
Green hydrogen seems to be on everyone's mind at the moment, with at least 10 countries looking to gas for future energy security and potential exports, and it suffices to know that a country like Portugal unveiled in May 2020 a national hydrogen strategy that was said to be It will amount to 7 billion euros ($7.7 billion) through 2030.
Besides oil and gas companies, renewable energy developers are seeing green hydrogen as an emerging market, with offshore wind energy company Ørsted announcing in May 2020 its first major project aimed exclusively at the transportation sector.
Alongside these big names, a handful of smaller companies are hoping to get a slice of the growing green hydrogen pie. Companies like ITM Power may not be as well known today, but if green hydrogen lives up to a fraction of its promise, it could one day become a huge entity.
Eighth: What about hydrogen compounds?
The eye-catching Toyota Mirai helped fuel early hopes that hydrogen fuel cell vehicles might compete with electric cars for the internal combustion engine. But with the electric car market booming, the possibility that hydrogen could be a serious competitor, at least in the passenger car segment, has faded.
There are approximately 7,600 hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles on US roads today, compared to more than 326,400 electric vehicles sold in the US in 2019.
However, experts still expect hydrogen to play a role in the decarbonization of forklifts and heavy trucks, as they are likely to benefit the most from hydrogen fuels.
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