Baghdad: Imad of the emirate
The country is exposed to the water scarcity of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and the tributaries that flow into them, and the situation cannot be tolerated or ignored with its catastrophic results. For years, Iraq has sought, and for years, with continuous diplomatic efforts with the two neighbors Turkey and Iran to ensure the flow of water from its sources and to address the water scarcity. On this issue, the specialist said. On the economic issue, Dr. Abdel Latif Shehab: “Good positive results have been crystallized from these diplomatic efforts with Turkey, but they are not up to the level of ambition in obtaining water resources for the country.”
Shehab added to "Al-Sabah", that "the Minister of Water Resources stated that the stumbling and complexity is with Iran, which cut off all water sources that flowed into the Diyala River and cut off the Karun River, which was a source of Basra's water; Therefore, it has become a national duty to use all methods to restore the country's water rights to protect food security, and for negotiations to be based on the principle of sharing harm or invoking international treaties on the course of
Shehab continued: “The issue of water is one of the most important pillars of national security for any country in the world, as the countries in whose territory the sources of the water source are located enjoy high flexibility in controlling the amount of water that reaches the downstream country, and as is the case between Iraq, Turkey and Iran, where The water problem has emerged for many decades, and called for the need for provisions and rules governing the use of water between the three countries.
He continued: "The Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 addressed this, as Article 109 stipulated the necessity of forming a joint committee between these countries whose mission is to address issues related to the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers."
Shehab stated: "A preliminary agreement between Iraq, Turkey and Iran referred to a settlement of any dispute over the water distribution system, and based on these international constants, water negotiations with upstream countries must focus on obtaining Iraq's water rights."
On the distribution of water shares according to international agreements, Dr. Nagham Hussein, Dean of the College of Business Administration at Al-Nahrain University said: There are constants and texts for treaties of friendship and common understanding between Iraq and Turkey that can be a basis for launching water negotiations, given that the major water share comes from Turkey, not Iran.
Hussein explained to “Al-Sabah” that “Article 5 of Protocol Number One on regulating the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates from the Treaty of Friendship and Good Neighborliness between Iraq and Turkey signed in 1946 focused on that Iraq has the right to send bodies to conduct surveys and that Turkey undertakes to cooperate with these international bodies and facilitate Their task is to do their work, and also to do the maintenance work for the permanent stations of water meters
and dispose of it.”
She stressed: "However, the Turkish side was not cooperative and kept delaying and refraining from committing to implementing its provisions, and what we want to say is that Iraq's negotiations with Turkey and Iran must focus on the country's national constants to protect the country's water rights, and then protect the food security of the citizen."
In order to address the current situation of water scarcity, academic Dr. Abdel Karim Al-Issawi explained that “it is wise to deal with diplomacy in securing water supplies from the two neighbors, Turkey and Iran, and that the following facts highlight the first, the importance of influential international legal bodies in determining the owners of the right to obtain water under various Circumstances, and the second, when the water shortage becomes severe, the voices of the needy rise from it for a just settlement of their cause.”
He explained, "Based on these facts, Iraq does not want to find itself in military conflicts again with neighboring countries, and it is better to resort to the legal institutions of the United Nations and regional institutions."
Al-Issawi continued: “In this regard, the Vienna Convention refers, which came to regulate the uses of international rivers, and defined it as a navigable river that separates or penetrates several countries. That a watercourse state does not cause harm to a state or other watercourse states in the event that it carries out activities that are harmful to states the other.”